Send to

Choose Destination
Br J Cancer. 2014 May 27;110(11):2772-84. doi: 10.1038/bjc.2014.175. Epub 2014 Apr 8.

Vitamin D intake, blood 25(OH)D levels, and breast cancer risk or mortality: a meta-analysis.

Author information

Department of Food and Nutrition, Kyung Hee University, 26 Kyunghee-daero, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul, South Korea.



Experimental studies suggest potential anti-carcinogenic properties of vitamin D against breast cancer risk, but the epidemiological evidence to date is inconsistent.


We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE databases along with a hand search for eligible studies to examine the association between vitamin D status (based on diet and blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D)) and breast cancer risk or mortality in a meta-analysis. A random-effect model was used to calculate a pooled adjusted relative risk (RR).


A total of 30 prospective studies (nested case-control or cohort) were included for breast cancer incidence (n=24 studies; 31‚ÄČ867 cases) or mortality (n=6 studies; 870 deaths) among 6092 breast cancer patients. The pooled RRs of breast cancer incidence for the highest vs the lowest vitamin D intake and blood 25(OH)D levels were 0.95 (95% CI: 0.88-1.01) and 0.92 (95% CI: 0.83-1.02), respectively. Among breast cancer patients, high blood 25(OH)D levels were significantly associated with lower breast cancer mortality (pooled RR=0.58, 95% CI: 0.40-0.85) and overall mortality (pooled RR=0.61, 95% CI: 0.48-0.79). There was no evidence of heterogeneity and publication bias.


Our findings suggest that high vitamin D status is weakly associated with low breast cancer risk but strongly associated with better breast cancer survival.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Nature Publishing Group Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center