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Integr Biol (Camb). 2014 May;6(5):486-510. doi: 10.1039/c4ib00025k.

Diagnostic morphology: biophysical indicators for iron-driven inflammatory diseases.

Author information

1
Department of Physiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, Private Bag x323, Arcadia 0007, South Africa. resia.pretorius@up.ac.za.

Abstract

Most non-communicable diseases involve inflammatory changes in one or more vascular systems, and there is considerable evidence that unliganded iron plays major roles in this. Most studies concentrate on biochemical changes, but there are important biophysical correlates. Here we summarize recent microscopy-based observations to the effect that iron can have major effects on erythrocyte morphology, on erythrocyte deformability and on both fibrinogen polymerization and the consequent structure of the fibrin clots formed, each of which contributes significantly and negatively to such diseases. We highlight in particular type 2 diabetes mellitus, ischemic thrombotic stroke, systemic lupus erythematosus, hereditary hemochromatosis and Alzheimer's disease, while recognizing that many other diseases have co-morbidities (and similar causes). Inflammatory biomarkers such as ferritin and fibrinogen are themselves inflammatory, creating a positive feedback that exacerbates disease progression. The biophysical correlates we describe may provide novel, inexpensive and useful biomarkers of the therapeutic benefits of successful treatments.

PMID:
24714688
DOI:
10.1039/c4ib00025k
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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