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Immunol Rev. 2014 May;259(1):231-44. doi: 10.1111/imr.12169.

Regulatory T cells in autoimmune neuroinflammation.

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Departments of Neurology and Immunobiology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA; Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA, USA; Faculty of Medicine, Dresden University of Technology (TUD), Dresden, Germany.


Regulatory T cells are the central element for the maintenance of peripheral tolerance. Several subtypes of regulatory T (Treg) cells have been described, and most of them belong to the CD4(+) T-helper (Th) cell lineage. These specific subtypes can be discriminated according to phenotype and function. Forkhead box protein 3 (FoxP3)-expressing natural Treg cells (Tregs) and IL-10-producing, T-regulatory type 1 cells (Tr1) are the best-studied types of CD4(+) regulatory T cells in humans and experimental animal models. It was shown that they play a crucial role during autoimmune neuroinflammation. Both cells types seem to be particularly important for multiple sclerosis (MS). Here, we discuss the role of CD4(+) regulatory T cells in autoimmune neuroinflammation with an emphasis on Tregs and Tr1 cells in MS.


FoxP3; Tr1; Treg; autoimmunity; multiple sclerosis; regulatory T cells

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