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PLoS One. 2014 Apr 7;9(4):e93782. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0093782. eCollection 2014.

Duffy antigen receptor for chemokine (DARC) polymorphisms and its involvement in acquisition of inhibitory anti-duffy binding protein II (DBPII) immunity.

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Laboratório de Malária, Centro de Pesquisas René Rachou, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil.
Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, campus Sinop, Sinop, MT, Brasil.
Julio Müller University Hospital, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Cuiabá, MT, Brasil.
Centro de Pesquisas Leônidas & Maria Deane, FIOCRUZ Amazônia, Manaus, AM, Brasil.
Department of Global Health, College of Public Health, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida, United States of America.


The Plasmodium vivax Duffy binding protein (PvDBP) and its erythrocytic receptor, the Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC), are involved in the major P. vivax erythrocyte invasion pathway. An open cohort study to analyze DARC genotypes and their relationship to PvDBP immune responses was carried out in 620 volunteers in an agricultural settlement of the Brazilian Amazon. Three cross-sectional surveys were conducted at 6-month intervals, comprising 395, 410, and 407 subjects, respectively. The incidence rates of P. vivax infection was 2.32 malaria episodes per 100 person-months under survey (95% confidence interval [CI] of 1.92-2.80/100 person-month) and, of P. falciparum, 0.04 per 100 person-months (95% CI of 0.007-0.14/100 person-month). The distribution of DARC genotypes was consistent with the heterogeneous ethnic origins of the Amazon population, with a predominance of non-silent DARC alleles: FY*A > FY*B. The 12-month follow-up study demonstrated no association between DARC genotypes and total IgG antibodies as measured by ELISA targeting PvDBP (region II, DBPII or regions II-IV, DBPII-IV). The naturally acquired DBPII specific binding inhibitory antibodies (BIAbs) tended to be more frequent in heterozygous individuals carrying a DARC-silent allele (FY*BES). These results provide evidence that DARC polymorphisms may influence the naturally acquired inhibitory anti-Duffy binding protein II immunity.

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