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PLoS One. 2014 Apr 7;9(4):e91888. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0091888. eCollection 2014.

The impact of spinal cord nerve roots and denticulate ligaments on cerebrospinal fluid dynamics in the cervical spine.

Author information

1
Center of Excellence in Design and Optimization of Energy Systems (CEDOES), School of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
2
Laboratory of Hemodynamics and Cardiovascular Technology, EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland.
3
Children's of Alabama, Birmingham, Alabama, United States of America.
4
Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.
5
Conquer Chiari Research Center, Dept. of Mech. Engineering, University of Akron, Akron, Ohio, United States of America.
6
SimuTech Group, Hudson, Ohio, United States of America.
7
Center of Excellence in Design and Optimization of Energy Systems (CEDOES), School of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran; Hydraulic Machinery Research Institute, School of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

Abstract

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics in the spinal subarachnoid space (SSS) have been thought to play an important pathophysiological role in syringomyelia, Chiari I malformation (CM), and a role in intrathecal drug delivery. Yet, the impact that fine anatomical structures, including nerve roots and denticulate ligaments (NRDL), have on SSS CSF dynamics is not clear. In the present study we assessed the impact of NRDL on CSF dynamics in the cervical SSS. The 3D geometry of the cervical SSS was reconstructed based on manual segmentation of MRI images of a healthy volunteer and a patient with CM. Idealized NRDL were designed and added to each of the geometries based on in vivo measurments in the literature and confirmation by a neuroanatomist. CFD simulations were performed for the healthy and patient case with and without NRDL included. Our results showed that the NRDL had an important impact on CSF dynamics in terms of velocity field and flow patterns. However, pressure distribution was not altered greatly although the NRDL cases required a larger pressure gradient to maintain the same flow. Also, the NRDL did not alter CSF dynamics to a great degree in the SSS from the foramen magnum to the C1 level for the healthy subject and CM patient with mild tonsillar herniation (∼ 6 mm). Overall, the NRDL increased fluid mixing phenomena and resulted in a more complex flow field. Comparison of the streamlines of CSF flow revealed that the presence of NRDL lead to the formation of vortical structures and remarkably increased the local mixing of the CSF throughout the SSS.

PMID:
24710111
PMCID:
PMC3977950
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0091888
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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