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PLoS One. 2014 Apr 7;9(4):e94145. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0094145. eCollection 2014.

Integrated assessment of heavy metal pollution in the surface sediments of the Laizhou Bay and the coastal waters of the Zhangzi Island, China: comparison among typical marine sediment quality indices.

Author information

1
Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Processes and Ecological Remediation, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai, Shandong, China; College of City and Architecture Engineering, Zaozhuang University, Zaozhuang, Shandong, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
2
Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Processes and Ecological Remediation, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai, Shandong, China.

Abstract

The total concentrations and chemical forms of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in the surface sediments of the Laizhou Bay and the surrounding marine area of the Zhangzi Island (hereafter referred to as Zhangzi Island for short) were obtained and multiple indices and guidelines were applied to assess their contamination and ecological risks. The sedimentary conditions were fine in both of the two studied areas according to the marine sediment quality of China. Whereas the probable effects level guideline suggested that Ni might cause adverse biological effects to occur frequently in some sites. All indices used suggested that Cd posed the highest environmental risk in both the Laizhou Bay and the Zhangzi Island, though Cd may unlikely be harmful to human and ecological health due to the very low total concentrations. The enrichment factor (EF) showed that a substantial portion of Cr was delivered from anthropogenic sources, whereas the risk assessment code (RAC) indicated that most Cr was in an inactive state that it may not have any adverse effect either. Moreover, the results of EF and geoaccumulation index were consistent with the trend of the total metal concentrations except for Cd, while the results of RAC and potential ecological risk factor did not follow the same trend of their corresponding total metal concentrations. We also evaluated the effects of using different indices to assess the environmental impact of these heavy metals.

PMID:
24709993
PMCID:
PMC3978014
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0094145
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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