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Brain Res. 2014 Oct 10;1584:73-9. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2014.03.042. Epub 2014 Apr 4.

MicroRNA (miRNA): sequence and stability, viroid-like properties, and disease association in the CNS.

Author information

1
Alchem Biotek, Toronto, ON, Canada, M5S 1A8.
2
Departments of Neurology, Neuroscience and Ophthalmology, LSU Neuroscience Center, School of Medicine, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, 2020 Gravier Street, Suite 904, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA.
3
Alchem Biotek, Toronto, ON, Canada, M5S 1A8; Departments of Neurology, Neuroscience and Ophthalmology, LSU Neuroscience Center, School of Medicine, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, 2020 Gravier Street, Suite 904, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA. Electronic address: wlukiw@lsuhsc.edu.

Abstract

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) constitute a relatively recently-discovered class of small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) that are gaining considerable attention in the molecular-genetic regulatory mechanisms that contribute to human health and disease. As highly soluble and mobile entities, emerging evidence indicates that miRNAs posess a highly selected ribonucleotide sequence structure, are part of an evolutionary ancient genetic signaling system, resemble the plant pathogens known as viroids in their structure, mode of generation and function, and are very abundant in the physiological fluids that surround cells and tissues. Persistence and altered abundance of miRNAs in the extracellular fluid (ECF) or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) may play a role in the intercellular spreading of disease systemically, and throughout functionally-linked cellular and tissue systems such as the central nervous system (CNS). This short communication will review some of the more fascinating features of these highly structured single stranded RNAs (ssRNAs) with emphasis on their presence and function in the human CNS, with particular reference to Alzheimer׳s disease (AD) wherever possible.

KEYWORDS:

Alzheimer׳s disease; CSF; ECF; Endocrine; Evolution; MicroRNA (miRNA); Neurological disease; Paracrine; Stability; Translocation; Transmissibility; Viroids

PMID:
24709119
PMCID:
PMC4175085
DOI:
10.1016/j.brainres.2014.03.042
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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