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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Apr 8;111(14):5331-6. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1317242111. Epub 2014 Mar 24.

Dynamin 2 along with microRNA-199a reciprocally regulate hypoxia-inducible factors and ovarian cancer metastasis.

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Departments of Pharmacology, Obstetrics and Gynecology, and Surgery, and Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455.


Hypoxia-driven changes in the tumor microenvironment facilitate cancer metastasis. In the present study, we investigated the regulatory cross talk between endocytic pathway, hypoxia, and tumor metastasis. Dynamin 2 (DNM2), a GTPase, is a critical mediator of endocytosis. Hypoxia decreased the levels of DNM2. DNM2 promoter has multiple hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-binding sites and genetic deletion of them relieved hypoxia-induced transcriptional suppression. Interestingly, DNM2 reciprocally regulated HIF. Inhibition of DNM2 GTPase activity and dominant-negative mutant of DNM2 showed a functional role for DNM2 in regulating HIF. Furthermore, the opposite strand of DNM2 gene encodes miR-199a, which is similarly reduced in cancer cells under hypoxia. miR-199a targets the 3'-UTR of HIF-1α and HIF-2α. Decreased miR-199a expression in hypoxia increased HIF levels. Exogenous expression of miR-199a decreased HIF, cell migration, and metastasis of ovarian cancer cells. miR-199a-mediated changes in HIF levels affected expression of the matrix-remodeling enzyme, lysyloxidase (LOX). LOX levels negatively correlated with progression-free survival in ovarian cancer patients. These results demonstrate a regulatory relationship between DNM2, miR-199a, and HIF, with implications in cancer metastasis.


iron regulation; microRNA

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