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J Clin Diagn Res. 2014 Feb;8(2):70-2. doi: 10.7860/JCDR/2014/7013.4011. Epub 2014 Feb 3.

A Study of Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndrome (APS) in Patients with Type1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) Followed Up at a Teritiary Care Hospital.

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Assistant Professor, Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Medical Sciences and Research , Mayani, Maharashtra, India .
Assistant Professor, Department of Critical Care Medicine, St. John's Medical College , Bangalore, India .
Assistant Professor, Department of Biochemistry, DM Wayanad Institute of Medical Science , Meppadi, Naseera Nagar Kerala, India .



Type1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) results from auto- immune destruction of insulin-producing β cells and is characterized by the presence of insulitis and β-cell autoantibodies. Up to one third of patients develop an autoimmune polyglandular syndrome (APS). Presence of other autoimmune disorders in patients with T1DM has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Hypoglycemia resulting from concurrent hypothyroidism or adrenal crisis can be dangerous; starting replacement therapy for hypothyroidism may result in adrenal crisis if background hypocortisolism is not recognized. Early detection of antibodies and latent organ-specific dysfunction is advocated to alert physicians to take appropriate action in order to prevent full-blown disease.


The objectives of this study were to assess the concurrence of various autoimmune disorders in patients with T1DM, to review the concept and detect the overt forms of Autoimmune Thyroid Disease (AITD), Addison's Disease (AD), Vitamin B 12, vitiligo in T1DM and to find their correlation according to age and sex of the patients.


It is a retrospective study where medical records between January 2007-June 2010 of all the patients diagnosed with T1DM, followed up at Department of Endocrinology were reviewed to find out the presence of (AD), AITD, vitiligo, Vitamin B12 deficiency and Primary Gonadal Failure, which were diagnosed clinically with available investigational procedures.


A total of 100 cases of T1DM were evaluated during the present study. The age group of patients ranged from 8 to 40 years, with the average being 21.56 years. 64% of the patients were males and the rest were females. 29 % of T1DM subjects had AITD (Hashimoto's or Graves'disease), 5% were diagnosed with Vitamin B12 deficiency, 4% had AD, and 6% showed Vitiligo. 28 % had family history of autoimmune endocrinopathy.


The commonest autoimmune disorder associated with T1DM found in our study was AITD. Because genetic/ autoantibodies testing is not a feasible option, it is important to screen them with best available laboratory facilities and clinical assessment in view of high prevalence of associated autoimmune conditions.


Addison’s disease; Autoantibodies; Autoimmune endocrinopathy; Autoimmune thyroid disease; Hypothyroidism

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