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J Nucl Med. 2014 Jun;55(6):995-1001. doi: 10.2967/jnumed.114.138180. Epub 2014 Apr 3.

Dual-Modality Image-Guided Surgery of Prostate Cancer with a Radiolabeled Fluorescent Anti-PSMA Monoclonal Antibody.

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Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
Department of Pathology and Diagnostics, University of Verona, Verona, Italy; and.
Department of Surgery, University of Groningen, University Medical Centre Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.


Both radionuclide imaging and near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF) imaging have a high sensitivity to detect tumors in vivo. The combination of these modalities using dual-labeled antibodies may allow both preoperative and intraoperative tumor localization and may be used in image-guided surgery to ensure complete resection of tumor tissue. Here, we evaluated the potential of dual-modality imaging of prostate cancer with the monoclonal antibody D2B, directed against an extracellular domain of prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA). For these studies, D2B was labeled both with (111)In and with the NIRF dye IRDye800CW.


D2B was conjugated with N-hydroxysuccinimide-IRDye800CW and p-isothiocyanatobenzyl-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (ITC-DTPA) and subsequently radiolabeled with (111)In. For biodistribution and NIRF imaging, (111)In-DTPA-D2B-IRDye800CW (2 μg, 0.55 MBq/mouse) was injected intravenously into BALB/c nude mice with subcutaneous PSMA-expressing LNCaP tumors (right flank) and PSMA-negative PC3 tumors (left flank). The biodistribution was determined at 1, 2, 3, and 7 d after injection. In addition, micro-SPECT/CT and NIRF imaging with (111)In-DTPA-D2B-IRDye800CW (3 μg, 8.5 MBq/mouse) was performed on mice with intraperitoneally growing LS174T-PSMA tumors.


(111)In-DTPA-D2B-IRDye800CW specifically accumulated in subcutaneous PSMA-positive LNCaP tumors (45.8 ± 8.0 percentage injected dose per gram at 168 h after injection), whereas uptake in subcutaneous PSMA-negative PC3 tumors was significantly lower (6.6 ± 1.3 percentage injected dose per gram at 168 h after injection). Intraperitoneal LS174T-PSMA tumors could be visualized specifically with both micro-SPECT/CT and NIRF imaging at 2 d after injection, and the feasibility of image-guided resection of intraperitoneal tumors was demonstrated in this model.


Dual-labeled (111)In-DTPA-D2B-IRDye800CW enables specific and sensitive detection of prostate cancer lesions in vivo with micro-SPECT/CT and NIRF imaging. In addition to preoperative micro-SPECT/CT imaging to detect tumors, NIRF imaging enables image-guided surgical resection. These preclinical findings warrant clinical studies with (111)In-DTPA-D2B-IRDye800CW to improve tumor detection and resection in prostate cancer patients.


D2B IgG; IRDye800CW; PSMA; dual-modality imaging; fluorescence imaging; prostate cancer

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