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Eur J Nutr. 2015 Feb;54(1):119-28. doi: 10.1007/s00394-014-0692-1. Epub 2014 Apr 4.

Human milk composition differs in healthy mothers and mothers with celiac disease.

Author information

1
Microbial Ecology, Nutrition and Health Research Group, Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology, National Research Council (IATA-CSIC), IATA-CSIC Av. Agustín Escardino, 7., 46980, Paterna, Valencia, Spain.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

To investigate whether breast-milk composition and microbiota differ in healthy mothers and mothers with celiac disease (CD) to ultimately contribute to identify additional factors determining CD risk.

METHODS:

Breast-milk samples from healthy mothers (n = 12) and mothers with CD (n = 12) were collected. Cytokines and secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) were analyzed by bead-arrays and flow cytometry and human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) were assessed by capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence (CE-LIF) detection. Breast-milk microbiota composition was analyzed by conventional and quantitative real-time PCR.

RESULT:

Breast milk from CD mothers showed significantly lower levels of interleukin (IL) 12p70 (P < 0.042), transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 (P < 0.018) and sIgA (P < 0.003) and almost significantly lower levels of interferon (IFN)-γ (P < 0.058). Six mothers in each group belonged to the secretor Le(a-b+) type, one to the secretor Le(a-b-) type and five to the non-secretor Le(a+b-) type. CD mothers of non-secretor Le(a+b-) type showed increased Lacto-N-tetraose content (P < 0.042) compared with healthy mothers. CD mothers' milk showed reduced gene copy numbers of Bifidobacterium spp. (P < 0.026) and B. fragilis group (P < 0.044).

CONCLUSION:

CD mothers' breast milk is characterized by a reduced abundance of immunoprotective compounds (TGF-β1 and sIgA) and bifidobacteria. The reduction in these components could theoretically diminish the protective effects of breast-feeding on the child's future risk of developing CD.

PMID:
24700375
DOI:
10.1007/s00394-014-0692-1
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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