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PLoS One. 2014 Apr 2;9(4):e93486. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0093486. eCollection 2014.

Survival, growth and reproduction of cryopreserved larvae from a marine invertebrate, the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas).

Author information

1
Ifremer, UMR 6539, PFOM Department, Station Expérimentale d'Argenton, Argenton, France.
2
INRA, UR 1037, LPGP, Rennes, France.
3
SYSAAF, LPGP, Rennes, France.
4
Satmar, Barfleur, France.

Abstract

This study is the first demonstration of successful post-thawing development to reproduction stage of diploid cryopreserved larvae in an aquatic invertebrate. Survival, growth and reproductive performances were studied in juvenile and adult Pacific oysters grown from cryopreserved embryos. Cryopreservation was performed at three early stages: trochophore (13±2 hours post fertilization: hpf), early D-larvae (24±2 hpf) and late D-larvae (43±2 hpf). From the beginning (88 days) at the end of the ongrowing phase (195 days), no mortality was recorded and mean body weights did not differ between the thawed oysters and the control. At the end of the growing-out phase (982 days), survival of the oysters cryopreserved at 13±2 hpf and at 43±2 hpf was significantly higher (P<0.001) than those of the control (non cryopreserved larvae). Only the batches cryopreserved at 24±2 hpf showed lower survival than the control. Reproductive integrity of the mature oysters, formely cryopreserved at 13±2 hpf and 24±2 hpf, was estimated by the sperm movement and the larval development of their offspring in 13 crosses gamete pools (five males and five females in each pool). In all but two crosses out of 13 tested (P<0.001), development rates of the offspring were not significantly different between frozen and unfrozen parents. In all, the growth and reproductive performances of oysters formerly cryopreserved at larval stages are close to those of controls. Furthermore, these performances did not differ between the three initial larval stages of cryopreservation. The utility of larvae cryopreservation is discussed and compared with the cryopreservation of gametes as a technique for selection programs and shellfish cryobanking.

PMID:
24695576
PMCID:
PMC3973601
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0093486
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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