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Curr Ther Res Clin Exp. 2008 Apr;69(2):150-8. doi: 10.1016/j.curtheres.2008.04.003.

Preconditionin effects of dexmedetomidine on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats.

Author information

1
Department of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Medicine, Abant Izzet Baysal University, Bolu, Turkey.
2
Department of Biology, Faculty of Science end Literature, Abant Izzet Baysal University, Bolu, Turkey.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Preconditioning might protect the myocardium against ischemia/ reperfusion injury by reducing infarct size and preventing arrhythmias. Dexmedetomidine (DEX) is a highly selective α2-agonist used for sedoanalgesia in daily anesthetic practice. The cardioprotective effects of DEX on infarct size and on the incidence of arrhythmias observed after regional ischemia/reperfusion injury in vivo have not been reported.

OBJECTIVE:

The aim of this study was to determine whether DEX exhibits a preconditioning effect and reduces infarct size and the incidence and duration of arrhythmias in a regional cardiac ischemia/reperfusion model in rats.

METHODS:

Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized with sodium thiopental and mechanically ventilated (0.9 mL/100 g at 60 strokes/min) through a cannula inserted into the trachea after tracheotomy. Cardiac ischemia was then produced by ligating the left main coronary artery for 30 minutes, followed by a reperfusion period of 120 minutes. Blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were monitored and echocardiograms (ECGs) were performed. Arrhythmia was scored based on incidence and duration. The animals were randomly divided into 3 groups. The ischemic preconditioning (IPC) group underwent 5 minutes of ischemia followed by 5 minutes of reperfusion before the 30-minute ischemia/120-minute reperfusion period. In the DEX group, intraperitoneal (IP) DEX 1 mL (100 μg/kg) was administered 30 minutes before the ischemia/ reperfusion period. In the control group, IP saline 1 mL was administered 30 minutes before the ischemia/reperfusion period. After reperfusion, the heart was excised, demarcated with saline and ethanol to identify the occluded and nonoccluded myocardium, and cut into slices ~2 mm thick, that were then stained and placed between 2 glass plates. The risk zone and the infarct zone were compared between groups. The investigator assessing the infarcts was blinded to the study group.

RESULTS:

Twenty-one adult (aged 4-6 months) male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 280 to 360 g were included in the study; 7 rats were assigned to each group. BP, HR, and ECG readings were not significantly different between groups and did not change during the study. Arrythmias occurred during ischemia and reperfusion in all groups. The duration of the arrhythmias was significantly shorter and the arrhythmia score was significantly lower in the IPC group (all, P<0.05), compared with the control group; however, they were not significantly different in the DEX group. During the ischemic period, duration of ventricular tachycardia (VT) and ventricular premature contractions (VPC) in the DEX group was significantly longer than that observed in the IPC group (all, P<0.05). The duration of VPC was also significantly shorter than that observed in the control group (both, P<0.05). Duration of VT during the reperfusion period in the DEX group was significantly longer than that observed in both IPC and control groups (both, P<0.05). The mean (SD) percentage of damage was significantly lower in the IPC group (44.1% [2.0%]) and the DEX group (26.7% [2.0%]) compared with the control group (69.0% [3.0%]; both, P<0.05). The percentage of damage in the DEX group was also significantly lower compared with the IPC group (P<0.05).

CONCLUSIONS:

This small, experimental in vivo study found that DEX was associated with reduced infarct size in ischemia/reperfusion injury in regional ischemia in this rat model but had no effect on the incidence of arrhythmias. Future studies are needed to clarify these findings.

KEYWORDS:

cardiac ischemia/reperfusion; dexmedetomidine; preconditioning

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