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Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2014 Jul 21;53(30):7952-5. doi: 10.1002/anie.201309128. Epub 2014 Apr 1.

Substrate templating guides the photoinduced reaction of C60 on calcite.

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Institut für Physikalische Chemie, Johannes Gutenberg Universität Mainz, Duesbergweg 10-14, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Graduate School of Excellence "Materials Science in Mainz", Staudinger Weg 9, 55128 Mainz (Germany).


A substrate-guided photochemical reaction of C60 fullerenes on calcite, a bulk insulator, investigated by non-contact atomic force microscopy is presented. The success of the covalent linkage is evident from a shortening of the intermolecular distances, which is clearly expressed by the disappearance of the moiré pattern. Furthermore, UV/Vis spectroscopy and mass spectrometry measurements carried out on thick films demonstrate the ability of our setup for initiating the photoinduced reaction. The irradiation of C60 results in well-oriented covalently linked domains. The orientation of these domains is dictated by the lattice dimensions of the underlying calcite substrate. Using the lattice mismatch to deliberately steer the direction of the chemical reaction is expected to constitute a general design principle for on-surface synthesis. This work thus provides a strategy for controlled fabrication of oriented, covalent networks on bulk insulators.


covalent networks; fullerenes; scanning probe microscopy; self-assembly; surface chemistry

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