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J Int Med Res. 2014 Jun;42(3):628-40. doi: 10.1177/0300060513505491. Epub 2014 Apr 1.

Ginsenoside Rg3 enhances radiosensitization of hypoxic oesophageal cancer cell lines through vascular endothelial growth factor and hypoxia inducible factor 1α.

Author information

1
Department of Radiotherapy, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, China.
2
Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, China.
3
Nantong Tumour Hospital, Nantong, Jiangsu Province, China.
4
Department of Radiotherapy, Second People's Hospital of Lianyungang, Lianyungang, Jiangsu Province, China.
5
Department of Synthetic Internal Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, China.
6
Department of Radiotherapy, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, China sunxinchen2012@163.com.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To determine if the pretreatment of hypoxic human oesophageal carcinoma cell lines (EC109, TE1 and KYSE170) with ginsenoside Rg3 (Rg3) increases their radiosensitivity to X-rays.

METHODS:

The growth inhibitory effect of different Rg3 concentrations was measured using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Radiation sensitivity was measured using a clone formation assay and flow cytometry was used to measure the effects of Rg3 on radiation-induced apoptosis. Western blot analysis was used to measure the effects of Rg3 on the levels of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF).

RESULTS:

Rg3 inhibited EC109, TE1 and KYSE170 cell growth in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Pretreatment with 10 µmol/ml Rg3 increased EC109, TE1 and KYSE170 radiosensitivity. Rg3 plus radiation significantly increased the apoptosis rate compared with radiation alone. Rg3 also decreased VEGF and HIF-1α protein levels in EC109 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The combination of Rg3 and radiation increased the fragmentation of double-stranded DNA.

CONCLUSION:

Rg3 enhanced the radiosensitivity of human oesophageal carcinoma cell lines cultured under hypoxic conditions possibly by downregulating VEGF and HIF-1α protein levels.

KEYWORDS:

Oesophageal carcinoma; ginsenoside Rg3; hypoxia inducible factor 1α; radiosensitizer; vascular endothelial growth factor

PMID:
24691458
DOI:
10.1177/0300060513505491
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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