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PeerJ. 2014 Feb 18;2:e278. doi: 10.7717/peerj.278. eCollection 2014.

Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) reassure others in distress.

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1
Living Links, Yerkes National Primate Research Center and Department of Psychology, Emory University , Atlanta, GA , USA.

Abstract

Contact directed by uninvolved bystanders toward others in distress, often termed consolation, is uncommon in the animal kingdom, thus far only demonstrated in the great apes, canines, and corvids. Whereas the typical agonistic context of such contact is relatively rare within natural elephant families, other causes of distress may trigger similar, other-regarding responses. In a study carried out at an elephant camp in Thailand, we found that elephants affiliated significantly more with other individuals through directed, physical contact and vocal communication following a distress event than in control periods. In addition, bystanders affiliated with each other, and matched the behavior and emotional state of the first distressed individual, suggesting emotional contagion. The initial distress responses were overwhelmingly directed toward ambiguous stimuli, thus making it difficult to determine if bystanders reacted to the distressed individual or showed a delayed response to the same stimulus. Nonetheless, the directionality of the contacts and their nature strongly suggest attention toward the emotional states of conspecifics. The elephants' behavior is therefore best classified with similar consolation responses by apes, possibly based on convergent evolution of empathic capacities.

KEYWORDS:

Conflict resolution; Consolation; Convergent cognitive evolution; Elephants; Targeted helping

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