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Sci Total Environ. 2014 Jun 15;484:27-35. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.03.026. Epub 2014 Mar 28.

Metal contamination in campus dust of Xi'an, China: a study based on multivariate statistics and spatial distribution.

Author information

1
School of Tourism and Environment, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an 710062, PR China.
2
School of Tourism and Environment, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an 710062, PR China. Electronic address: luxinwei@snnu.edu.cn.
3
Department of Civil Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver V6T 1Z4, Canada. Electronic address: lli@civil.ubc.ca.

Abstract

The concentrations of As, Ba, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, V and Zn in campus dust from kindergartens, elementary schools, middle schools and universities of Xi'an, China were determined by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Correlation coefficient analysis, principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) were used to analyze the data and to identify possible sources of these metals in the dust. The spatial distributions of metals in urban dust of Xi'an were analyzed based on the metal concentrations in campus dusts using the geostatistics method. The results indicate that dust samples from campuses have elevated metal concentrations, especially for Pb, Zn, Co, Cu, Cr and Ba, with the mean values of 7.1, 5.6, 3.7, 2.9, 2.5 and 1.9 times the background values for Shaanxi soil, respectively. The enrichment factor results indicate that Mn, Ni, V, As and Ba in the campus dust were deficiently to minimally enriched, mainly affected by nature and partly by anthropogenic sources, while Co, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn in the campus dust and especially Pb and Zn were mostly affected by human activities. As and Cu, Mn and Ni, Ba and V, and Pb and Zn had similar distribution patterns. The southwest high-tech industrial area and south commercial and residential areas have relatively high levels of most metals. Three main sources were identified based on correlation coefficient analysis, PCA, CA, as well as spatial distribution characteristics. As, Ni, Cu, Mn, Pb, Zn and Cr have mixed sources - nature, traffic, as well as fossil fuel combustion and weathering of materials. Ba and V are mainly derived from nature, but partly also from industrial emissions, as well as construction sources, while Co principally originates from construction.

KEYWORDS:

Dust; Metals; Multivariate statistics; Source; Spatial analysis

PMID:
24686142
DOI:
10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.03.026
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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