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Transplant Rev (Orlando). 2014 Jul;28(3):126-33. doi: 10.1016/j.trre.2014.03.002. Epub 2014 Mar 12.

Strategies for the management of adverse events associated with mTOR inhibitors.

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Center for Transplantation, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, USA. Electronic address:
Division of Nephrology, Keck School of Medicine at University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
Division of Abdominal Transplant Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine Barnes-Jewish Hospital, Saint Louis, MO, USA.


Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors are used as potent immunosuppressive agents in solid-organ transplant recipients (everolimus and sirolimus) and as antineoplastic therapies for various cancers (eg, advanced renal cell carcinoma; everolimus, temsirolimus, ridaforolimus). Relevant literature, obtained from specific PubMed searches, was reviewed to evaluate the incidence and mechanistic features of specific adverse events (AEs) associated with mTOR inhibitor treatment, and to present strategies to effectively manage these events. The AEs examined in this review include stomatitis and other cutaneous AEs, wound-healing complications (eg, lymphocele, incisional hernia), diabetes/hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, proteinuria, nephrotoxicity, delayed graft function, pneumonitis, anemia, hypertension, gonadal dysfunction, and ovarian toxicity. Strategies for selecting appropriate patients for mTOR inhibitor therapy and minimizing the risks of AEs are discussed, along with best practices for identifying and managing side effects. mTOR inhibitors are promising therapeutic options in immunosuppression and oncology; most AEs can be effectively detected and managed or reversed with careful monitoring and appropriate interventions.

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