Send to

Choose Destination
Orthop Clin North Am. 2014 Apr;45(2):225-32. doi: 10.1016/j.ocl.2013.12.004. Epub 2014 Jan 29.

Evaluation and management of brachial plexus birth palsy.

Author information

Department of Orthopedics, University of Maryland Brachial Plexus Clinic, University of Maryland School of Medicine, One Texas Station Court, Suite 300, Timonium, MD 21093, USA.
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Shriners Hospitals for Children, Temple University, 3551 North Broad Street, Philadelphia, PA 19140, USA. Electronic address:


Brachial plexus birth palsy can result in permanent lifelong deficits and unfortunately continues to be relatively common despite advancements in obstetric care. The diagnosis can be made shortly after birth by physical examination, noting a lack of movement in the affected upper extremity. Treatment begins with passive range-of-motion exercises to maintain flexibility and tactile stimulation to provide sensory reeducation. Primary surgery consists of microsurgical nerve surgery, whereas secondary surgery consists of alternative microsurgical procedures, tendon transfers, or osteotomies, all of which improve outcomes in the short term. However, the long-term outcomes of current treatment recommendations remain unknown.


Brachial plexus; Brachial plexus birth palsy; Nerve injury; Obstetric brachial plexus palsy; Shoulder dystocia

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center