Format

Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
JSLS. 2014 Jan-Mar;18(1):1-7. doi: 10.4293/108680813X13693422520882.

Subcutaneous emphysema--beyond the pneumoperitoneum.

Author information

  • 1Biomedical Engineering, Mercer University, 109 Preston Court, Macon GA 31210, USA. gabiomed@mindspring.com.

Erratum in

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Subcutaneous emphysema and gas extravasation outside of the peritoneal cavity during laparoscopy has consequences. Knowledge of the circumstances that increase the potential for subcutaneous emphysema is necessary for safe laparoscopy.

METHODS:

A literature review and a PubMed search are the basis for this review.

CONCLUSIONS:

The known risk factors leading to subcutaneous emphysema during laparoscopy are multiple attempts at abdominal entry, improper cannula placement, loose fitting cannula/skin and fascial entry points, use of >5 cannulas, use of cannulas as fulcrums, torque of the laparoscope, increased intra-abdominal pressure, procedures lasting >3.5 hours, and attention to details. New additional risk factors acting as direct factors leading to subcutaneous emphysema risk and occurrence are total gas volume, gas flow rate, valveless trocar systems, and robotic fulcrum forces. Recognizing this spectrum of factors that leads to subcutaneous emphysema will yield greater patient safety during laparoscopic procedures.

PMID:
24680136
PMCID:
PMC3939322
DOI:
10.4293/108680813X13693422520882
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

0 comments
How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Support Center