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J Exerc Rehabil. 2014 Feb 28;10(1):35-44. doi: 10.12965/jer.140087. eCollection 2014 Feb.

A 12-week rehabilitation program improves body composition, pain sensation, and internal/external torques of baseball pitchers with shoulder impingement symptom.

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Division of Martial Arts·Guard, Howon University, Gunsan, Korea.
Department of Exercise Physiology·Prescription, Graduate School of Health Promotion, Hanseo University, Seosan, Korea.


The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a 12-week rehabilitation program on body composition, shoulder pain, and isokinetic internal/external torques of pitchers with impingement syndrome. A total of 30 pitchers were divided into 2 groups: experimental group (EG, n = 16) and control group (CG, n= 14). The rehabilitation program consisted of physical therapy, warm-up, work-out, and cool-down. As results, body weight and fat mass of EG were decreased whereas muscle mass of EG was significantly increased after the experiment. The pain degrees in resting, normal daily activity, and strenuous activity on the numeric pain rating scale were significantly decreased in the EG. The internal and external peak torques (PTs) of uninvolved and involved sides of EG were increased in EG after 12 weeks. Such results provide a deficit ratio of both sides in EG close to normal values. The ratios of internal/external PTs in EG were also close to the reference values. The internal and external total works of both sides in EG were similar to the values of PT. The fatigue indices of internal and external rotators of both sides in EG were decreased. As a conclusion, a 12-week rehabilitation program reduced the shoulder pain, improved the body composition and enhanced the isokinetic shoulder internal/external rotators in EG with impingement symptoms. Also the study suggested that the rehabilitation program evened out the ratio between internal and external rotators and lowered the fatigue level after the experiment.


Muscle mass; Numeric pain rating scale; Shoulder external rotators; Shoulder internal rotators

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