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Interdiscip Toxicol. 2013 Dec;6(4):217-21. doi: 10.2478/intox-2013-0032.

The ameliorative effect of ascorbic acid and Ginkgo biloba on learning and memory deficits associated with fluoride exposure.

Author information

1
Department of Anatomy, Melaka Manipal Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka, India.
2
Department of Pathology, Yenepoya Medical College, Yenepoya University, Mangalore, Karnataka, India.
3
Department of Pharmacology, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka, India.
4
Department of Anatomy, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka, India.

Abstract

Chronic exposure to fluoride causes dental and skeletal fluorosis. Fluoride exposure is also detrimental to soft tissues and organs. The present study aimed at evaluation of the effect of Ginkgo biloba and ascorbic acid on learning and memory deficits caused by fluoride exposure. Male Wistar rats were divided into five groups (n=6). Group 1 control. Groups 2 to 5 received 100 ppm of sodium fluoride over 30 days. Groups 3, 4 and 5 were further treated for 15 days receiving respectively 1% gum acacia solution, 100 mg/kg body weight ascorbic acid, and 100mg/kg body weight Ginkgo biloba extract. After 45 days, all animals were subjected to behavioural tests. The results showed that fluoride affected learning and memory. Fluoride causes oxidative stress and neurodegeneration, thereby affecting learning and memory. Ascorbic acid and Ginkgo biloba were found to augment the reversal of learning and memory deficits caused by fluoride ingestion.

KEYWORDS:

Ginkgo biloba; ascorbic acid; fluoride; learning and memory deficits

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