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J Infect Dis. 2014 Sep 1;210(5):674-83. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiu185. Epub 2014 Mar 26.

Effectiveness of influenza vaccine against life-threatening RT-PCR-confirmed influenza illness in US children, 2010-2012.

Author information

1
Influenza Division, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Battelle Memorial Institute, Atlanta, Georgia.
2
Abt Associates, Inc., Cambridge.
3
Department of Anesthesia, Perioperative and Pain Medicine (Critical Care), Boston Children's Hospital, Massachusetts.
4
Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland.
5
Division of Critical Care Medicine, Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, Ohio.
6
Section of Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado School of Medicine and Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora.
7
Influenza Division, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

No studies have examined the effectiveness of influenza vaccine against intensive care unit (ICU) admission associated with influenza virus infection among children.

METHODS:

In 2010-2011 and 2011-2012, children aged 6 months to 17 years admitted to 21 US pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) with acute severe respiratory illness and testing positive for influenza were enrolled as cases; children who tested negative were PICU controls. Community controls were children without an influenza-related hospitalization, matched to cases by comorbidities and geographic region. Vaccine effectiveness was estimated with logistic regression models.

RESULTS:

We analyzed data from 44 cases, 172 PICU controls, and 93 community controls. Eighteen percent of cases, 31% of PICU controls, and 51% of community controls were fully vaccinated. Compared to unvaccinated children, children who were fully vaccinated were 74% (95% CI, 19% to 91%) or 82% (95% CI, 23% to 96%) less likely to be admitted to a PICU for influenza compared to PICU controls or community controls, respectively. Receipt of 1 dose of vaccine among children for whom 2 doses were recommended was not protective.

CONCLUSIONS:

During the 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 US influenza seasons, influenza vaccination was associated with a three-quarters reduction in the risk of life-threatening influenza illness in children.

KEYWORDS:

case-control studies; child; influenza infection; influenza vaccines; intensive care; respiratory failure

PMID:
24676207
DOI:
10.1093/infdis/jiu185
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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