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Virus Res. 2014 Jun 24;185:53-63. doi: 10.1016/j.virusres.2014.03.015. Epub 2014 Mar 24.

Molecular mechanisms enhancing the proteome of influenza A viruses: an overview of recently discovered proteins.

Author information

1
Laboratory of Structural and Functional Proteomics, Research Institute of Influenza, St-Petersburg 197376, Russia. Electronic address: vasin@influenza.spb.ru.
2
Laboratory of Structural and Functional Proteomics, Research Institute of Influenza, St-Petersburg 197376, Russia.

Abstract

Influenza A virus is one of the major human pathogens. Despite numerous efforts to produce absolutely effective anti-influenza drugs or vaccines, no such agent has been developed yet. One of the main reasons for this complication is the high mutation rate and the specific structure of influenza A viruses genome. For more than 25 years since the first mapping of the viral genome, it was believed that its 8 genome segments encode 10 proteins. However, the proteome of influenza A viruses has turned out to be much more complex than previously thought. In 2001, the first accessory protein, PB1-F2, translated from the alternative open reading frame, was discovered. Subsequently, six more proteins, PB1-N40, PA-X, PA-N155, PA-N182, M42, and NS3, have been found. It is important to pay close attention to these novel proteins in order to evaluate their role in the pathogenesis of influenza, especially in the case of outbreaks of human infections with new avian viruses, such as H5N1 or H7N9. In this review we summarize the data on the molecular mechanisms used by influenza A viruses to expand their proteome and on the possible functions of the recently discovered viral proteins.

KEYWORDS:

Influenza A virus; Influenza virus proteome; M42; NEG8; PA-X; PB1-N40

PMID:
24675275
DOI:
10.1016/j.virusres.2014.03.015
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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