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Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2014 May;90(5):151-7. doi: 10.1016/j.plefa.2014.02.003. Epub 2014 Feb 24.

Dietary omega-6 fatty acid lowering increases bioavailability of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in human plasma lipid pools.

Author information

1
Brain Physiology and Metabolism Section, Laboratory of Neuroscience, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA. Electronic address: ameer.taha@nih.gov.
2
Brain Physiology and Metabolism Section, Laboratory of Neuroscience, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.
3
Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Program on Integrative Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.
4
Nutrition Research and Metabolism Core, North Carolina Translational Clinical Sciences Institute, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, USA.
5
Section on Nutritional Neurosciences, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.
6
Department of Neurology, Program on Integrative Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.
7
Section on Nutritional Neurosciences, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA; Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Program on Integrative Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Dietary linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6) lowering in rats reduces n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) plasma concentrations and increases n-3 PUFA (eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) concentrations.

OBJECTIVE:

To evaluate the extent to which 12 weeks of dietary n-6 PUFA lowering, with or without increased dietary n-3 PUFAs, alters unesterified and esterified plasma n-6 and n-3 PUFA concentrations in subjects with chronic headache.

DESIGN:

Secondary analysis of a randomized trial. Subjects with chronic headache were randomized for 12 weeks to (1) average n-3, low n-6 (L6) diet; or (2) high n-3, low n-6 LA (H3-L6) diet. Esterified and unesterified plasma fatty acids were quantified at baseline (0 weeks) and after 12 weeks on a diet.

RESULTS:

Compared to baseline, the L6 diet reduced esterified plasma LA and increased esterified n-3 PUFA concentrations (nmol/ml), but did not significantly change plasma arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) concentration. In addition, unesterified EPA concentration was increased significantly among unesterified fatty acids. The H3-L6 diet decreased esterified LA and AA concentrations, and produced more marked increases in esterified and unesterified n-3 PUFA concentrations.

CONCLUSION:

Dietary n-6 PUFA lowering for 12 weeks significantly reduces LA and increases n-3 PUFA concentrations in plasma, without altering plasma AA concentration. A concurrent increase in dietary n-3 PUFAs for 12 weeks further increases n-3 PUFA plasma concentrations and reduces AA.

KEYWORDS:

Arachidonic acid (AA); Chronic headache; Fish; Linoleic acid (LA) lowering; Omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs); Plasma fatty acid concentrations

PMID:
24675168
PMCID:
PMC4035030
DOI:
10.1016/j.plefa.2014.02.003
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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