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J Food Prot. 2014 Mar;77(3):466-71. doi: 10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-13-284.

Postharvest strategies for deoxynivalenol and zearalenone reduction in stored adlay (Coix lachryma-jobi L.) grains.

Author information

1
Laboratory of Mucosal Exposome and Biomodulation, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, and Medical Research Institute, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Yangsan, South Korea.
2
Department of Herbal Crop Research, National Institute of Horticultural & Herbal Science, RDA, Eumseong, South Korea.
3
National Institute of Animal Science, RDA, Suwon, South Korea.
4
Laboratory of Mucosal Exposome and Biomodulation, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, and Medical Research Institute, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Yangsan, South Korea; Immunoregulatory Therapeutics Group in Brain Busan 21 Project, Busan, South Korea. moon@pnu.edu.

Abstract

Improperly practiced postharvest procedures can pose mycotoxin-related risks in the production of medicinal herbs. As a health food with pharmacological supplements, cereal-based adlay has been broadly used in oriental medical practice. Compared with the standard production protocol, three provisional critical control points (CCPs) in the conventional procedure were identified and assessed for mycotoxin contamination in the adlay from small farms in Korea. Although various mycotoxins were present, the prevalence of deoxynivalenol (DON) or zearalenone (ZEN) was relatively high in the adlay. In terms of drying conditions, field drying in the conventional pathway was associated with more exposure to DON than heated-air drying. Moreover, the DON or ZEN levels in chaff were higher than the levels in the inner grain, suggesting that the hulling process as another CCP would reduce the DON or ZEN exposure. In particular, the DON or ZEN levels in adlay stored for protracted periods without dehulling were very high, but a lower storage temperature of 12°C was not effective at significantly reducing these mycotoxins. In this case, the inner grain was more contaminated with DON or ZEN than the chaff after protracted storage because surface fungi, which produce mycotoxins, can penetrate deep into grain with time. Heated-air drying and nonprotracted storage limited DON contamination in adlay. More importantly, an early dehulling process should be adopted as an easy preventive action to reduce the risk of exposure to DON or ZEN in adlay postharvest. This is monitored as a central CCP for safer production of adlay from local farms.

PMID:
24674439
DOI:
10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-13-284
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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