Format

Send to

Choose Destination
J Food Drug Anal. 2014 Mar;22(1):64-75. doi: 10.1016/j.jfda.2014.01.005. Epub 2014 Jan 30.

Mechanisms of nanotoxicity: generation of reactive oxygen species.

Author information

1
National Center for Toxicological Research, US Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079, USA. Electronic address: peter.fu@fda.hhs.gov.
2
National Center for Toxicological Research, US Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079, USA.
3
Department of Biology, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS 39217, USA.
4
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS 39217, USA.

Abstract

Nanotechnology is a rapidly developing field in the 21(st) century, and the commercial use of nanomaterials for novel applications is increasing exponentially. To date, the scientific basis for the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of most manufactured nanomaterials are not understood. The mechanisms underlying the toxicity of nanomaterials have recently been studied intensively. An important mechanism of nanotoxicity is the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Overproduction of ROS can induce oxidative stress, resulting in cells failing to maintain normal physiological redox-regulated functions. This in turn leads to DNA damage, unregulated cell signaling, change in cell motility, cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and cancer initiation. There are critical determinants that can affect the generation of ROS. These critical determinants, discussed briefly here, include: size, shape, particle surface, surface positive charges, surface-containing groups, particle dissolution, metal ion release from nanometals and nanometal oxides, UV light activation, aggregation, mode of interaction with cells, inflammation, and pH of the medium.

KEYWORDS:

Lipid peroxidation; Nanotoxicology; Reactive oxygen species

PMID:
24673904
DOI:
10.1016/j.jfda.2014.01.005
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center