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Front Aging Neurosci. 2014 Mar 14;6:42. doi: 10.3389/fnagi.2014.00042. eCollection 2014.

Targeting multiple pathogenic mechanisms with polyphenols for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease-experimental approach and therapeutic implications.

Author information

1
Department of Neurology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai New York, NY, USA ; Geriatric Research, Education and Clinical Center, James J. Peters Veterans Affairs Medical Center Bronx, NY, USA.
2
Department of Neurology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai New York, NY, USA.
3
Departments of Food Science and Foods and Nutrition, Purdue University West Lafayette, IN, USA.
4
Department of Psychiatry, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai New York, NY, USA.

Abstract

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent neurodegenerative disease of aging and currently has no cure. Its onset and progression are influenced by multiple factors. There is growing consensus that successful treatment will rely on simultaneously targeting multiple pathological features of AD. Polyphenol compounds have many proven health benefits. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that combining three polyphenolic preparations (grape seed extract, resveratrol, and Concord grape juice extract), with different polyphenolic compositions and partially redundant bioactivities, may simultaneously and synergistically mitigate amyloid-β (Aβ) mediated neuropathology and cognitive impairments in a mouse model of AD. We found that administration of the polyphenols in combination did not alter the profile of bioactive polyphenol metabolites in the brain. We also found that combination treatment resulted in better protection against cognitive impairments compared to individual treatments, in J20 AD mice. Electrophysiological examination showed that acute treatment with select brain penetrating polyphenol metabolites, derived from these polyphenols, improved oligomeric Aβ (oAβ)-induced long term potentiation (LTP) deficits in hippocampal slices. Moreover, we found greatly reduced total amyloid content in the brain following combination treatment. Our studies provided experimental evidence that application of polyphenols targeting multiple disease-mechanisms may yield a greater likelihood of therapeutic efficacy.

KEYWORDS:

Alzheimer's disease (AD); J20 mice; grape juice; grape seed extract; polyphenols; resveratrol

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