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Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2014 May;18(5):412. doi: 10.1007/s11916-014-0412-9.

Peripheral neuromodulation: a review.

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Interventional Pain Management and Neuromodulation Practice, 18 Wimpole Street, London, W1G 8GD, UK,


Peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) is likely the most diverse and rapidly expanding area of neuromodulation. Its expansion has become possible due to both technological and clinical advances in pain medicine. The first implantable systems were surgically placed. However, it is currently commonplace to use percutaneous leads, as this approach has become instrumental in its expansion. The first percutaneous peripheral nerve stimulators were reported in 1999. Cylindrical leads were implanted to stimulate the greater occipital nerve to manage intractable headache. It has been expanded into other individual nerves or nerve plexuses to treat neuropathic, visceral, cardiac, abdominal, low back and facial pain. The use of PNS in modulating organ function in treatment of syndromes such as epilepsy, incontinence and obesity with vagal, tibial and gastric stimulation is under extensive investigation. New technologies that allow easier and safer electrode placement are expected to further expand the uses of PNS. A noninvasive stimulation will open this treatment modality to more clinicians of varying backgrounds.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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