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Nature. 2014 Mar 27;507(7493):455-461. doi: 10.1038/nature12787.

An atlas of active enhancers across human cell types and tissues.

Collaborators (261)

Forrest AR, Kawaji H, Rehli M, Baillie JK, de Hoon MJ, Haberle V, Lassmann T, Kulakovskiy IV, Lizio M, Itoh M, Andersson R, Mungall CJ, Meehan TF, Schmeier S, Bertin N, Jørgensen M, Dimont E, Arner E, Schmid C, Schaefer U, Medvedeva YA, Plessy C, Vitezic M, Severin J, Semple CA, Ishizu Y, Young RS, Francescatto M, Alam I, Albanese D, Altschuler GM, Arakawa T, Archer JA, Arner P, Babina M, Rennie S, Balwierz PJ, Beckhouse AG, Pradhan-Bhatt S, Blake JA, Blumenthal A, Bodega B, Bonetti A, Briggs J, Brombacher F, Burroughs AM, Califano A, Cannistracti CV, Carbajo D, Chen Y, Chierici M, Ciani Y, Clevers HC, Dalla E, Davis CA, Detmar M, Diehl AD, Dohi T, Drabløs F, Edge AS, Edinger M, Ekwall K, Endoh M, Enomoto H, Fagiolini M, Fairbairn L, Fang H, Farach-Carson MC, Faulkner GJ, Favorov AV, Fisher ME, Frith MC, Fujita R, Fukuda S, Furlanello C, Furuno M, Furusawa J, Geijtenbeek TB, Gibson AP, Gingeras T, Goldowitz D, Gough J, Guhl S, Guler R, Gustincich S, Ha TJ, Hamaguchi M, Hara M, Harbers M, Harshbarger J, Hasegawa A, Hasegawa Y, Hashimoto T, Herlyn M, Hitchens KJ, Ho Sui SJ, Hofman OM, Hoof I, Hori F, Huminiecki L, Iida K, Ikawa T, Jankovic BR, Jia H, Joshi A, Jurman G, Kaczkowski B, Kai C, Kaida K, Kaiho A, Kajiyama K, Kanamori-Katayama M, Kasianov AS, Kasukawa T, Katayama S, Kato S, Kawaguchi S, Kawamoto H, Kawamura YI, Kawashima T, Kempfle JS, Kenna TJ, Kere J, Khachigian LM, Kitamura T, Klinken SP, Knox AJ, Kojima M, Kojima S, Kondo N, Koseki H, Koyasu S, Krampitz S, Kubosaki A, Kwon AT, Laros JF, Lee W, Lennartsson A, Li K, Lilje B, Lipovich L, Mackay-Sim A, Manabe R, Mar JC, Marchand B, Mathelier A, Mejhert N, Meynert A, Mizuno Y, de Lima Morais DA, Morikawa H, Morimoto M, Moro K, Motakis E, Motohashi H, Mummery CL, Murata M, Nagao-Sato S, Nakachi Y, Nakahara F, Nakamura T, Nakamura Y, Nakazato K, van Nimwegen E, Ninomiya N, Nishiyori H, Noma S, Nozaki T, Ogishima S, Ohkura N, Ohmiya H, Ohno H, Onshima M, Okada-Hatakeyama M, Okazaki Y, Orlando V, Ovchinnikov DA, Pain A, Passier R, Patrikakis M, Persson H, Piazza S, Prendergast JG, Rackham OJ, Ramilowski JA, Rashid M, Ravasi T, Rizzu P, Roncador M, Roy S, Rye MB, Saijyo E, Sajantila A, Saka A, Sakaguchi S, Sakai M, Sato H, Satoh H, Savvi S, Saxena A, Schneider C, Schultes EA, Schultz-Tanzil GG, Schwegmann A, Sengstag T, Sheng G, Shimoji H, Shimoni Y, Shin JW, Simon C, Sugiyama D, Sugiyama T, Suzuki M, Suzuki N, Swoboda RK, 't Hoen PA, Tagami M, Takahashi N, Takai J, Tanaka H, Tatsukawa H, Tatum Z, Thompson M, Toyoda H, Toyodo T, Valen E, van de Wetering M, van den Berg LM, Verardo R, Vijayan D, Vorontsov IE, Wasserman WW, Watanabe S, Wells CA, Winteringham LN, Wolvetang E, Wood EJ, Yamaguchi Y, Yamamoto M, Yoneda M, Yonekura Y, Yoshida S, Zabierowski SE, Zhang PG, Zhao X, Zucchelli S, Summers KM, Suzuki H, Daub CO, Kawai J, Heutink P, Hide W, Freeman TC, Lenhard B, Bajic VB, Taylor MS, Makeev VJ, Sandelin A, Hume DA, Carninci P, Hayashizaki Y.

Author information

1
The Bioinformatics Centre, Department of Biology & Biotech Research and Innovation Centre, University of Copenhagen, Ole Maaloes Vej 5, DK-2200 Copenhagen, Denmark.
2
Department of Internal Medicine III, University Hospital Regensburg, Franz-Josef-Strauss-Allee 11, 93042 Regensburg, Germany.
3
School of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK.
4
Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA.
5
RIKEN OMICS Science Centre, RIKEN Yokohama Institute, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama City, Kanagawa, 230-0045, Japan.
6
RIKEN Center for Life Science Technologies (Division of Genomic Technologies), RIKEN Yokohama Institute, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama City, Kanagawa, 230-0045, Japan.
7
Centre for mRNP Biogenesis and Metabolism, Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, C.F. Møllers Alle 3, Bldg. 1130, DK-8000 Aarhus, Denmark.
8
Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, USA.
9
The Finsen Laboratory, Rigshospitalet and Danish Stem Cell Centre (DanStem), University of Copenhagen, Ole Maaloes Vej 5, DK-2200, Denmark.
10
Roslin Institute, Edinburgh University, Easter Bush, Midlothian, EH25 9RG Scotland, UK.
11
Genomics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road MS 64-121, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.
12
EMBL Outstation - Hinxton, European Bioinformatics Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge, CB10 1SD.
13
RIKEN Preventive Medicine and Diagnosis Innovation Program, RIKEN Yokohama Institute, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama City, Kanagawa, 230-0045, Japan.
14
Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, 14183 Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden.
15
Department of Clinical Genetics, VU University Medical Center, van der Boechorststraat 7, 1081 BT Amsterdam, Netherlands.
#
Contributed equally

Abstract

Enhancers control the correct temporal and cell-type-specific activation of gene expression in multicellular eukaryotes. Knowing their properties, regulatory activity and targets is crucial to understand the regulation of differentiation and homeostasis. Here we use the FANTOM5 panel of samples, covering the majority of human tissues and cell types, to produce an atlas of active, in vivo-transcribed enhancers. We show that enhancers share properties with CpG-poor messenger RNA promoters but produce bidirectional, exosome-sensitive, relatively short unspliced RNAs, the generation of which is strongly related to enhancer activity. The atlas is used to compare regulatory programs between different cells at unprecedented depth, to identify disease-associated regulatory single nucleotide polymorphisms, and to classify cell-type-specific and ubiquitous enhancers. We further explore the utility of enhancer redundancy, which explains gene expression strength rather than expression patterns. The online FANTOM5 enhancer atlas represents a unique resource for studies on cell-type-specific enhancers and gene regulation.

PMID:
24670763
PMCID:
PMC5215096
DOI:
10.1038/nature12787
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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