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Nature. 2014 May 1;509(7498):115-8. doi: 10.1038/nature13083. Epub 2014 Mar 23.

Structure of the human P2Y12 receptor in complex with an antithrombotic drug.

Author information

1
1] CAS Key Laboratory of Receptor Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 555 Zuchongzhi Road, Pudong, Shanghai 201203, China [2].
2
Molecular Recognition Section, Laboratory of Bioorganic Chemistry, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.
3
CAS Key Laboratory of Receptor Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 555 Zuchongzhi Road, Pudong, Shanghai 201203, China.
4
Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037, USA.
5
PharmaCenter Bonn, Pharmaceutical Institute, Pharmaceutical Chemistry I, An der Immenburg 4, D-53121 Bonn, Germany.
6
Drug Discovery and Design Center, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 555 Zuchongzhi Road, Pudong, Shanghai 201203, China.
7
1] Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037, USA [2] iHuman Institute, ShanghaiTech University, 99 Haike Road, Pudong, Shanghai 201203, China.

Abstract

P2Y receptors (P2YRs), a family of purinergic G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), are activated by extracellular nucleotides. There are a total of eight distinct functional P2YRs expressed in human, which are subdivided into P2Y1-like receptors and P2Y12-like receptors. Their ligands are generally charged molecules with relatively low bioavailability and stability in vivo, which limits our understanding of this receptor family. P2Y12R regulates platelet activation and thrombus formation, and several antithrombotic drugs targeting P2Y12R--including the prodrugs clopidogrel (Plavix) and prasugrel (Effient) that are metabolized and bind covalently, and the nucleoside analogue ticagrelor (Brilinta) that acts directly on the receptor--have been approved for the prevention of stroke and myocardial infarction. However, limitations of these drugs (for example, a very long half-life of clopidogrel action and a characteristic adverse effect profile of ticagrelor) suggest that there is an unfulfilled medical need for developing a new generation of P2Y12R inhibitors. Here we report the 2.6 Å resolution crystal structure of human P2Y12R in complex with a non-nucleotide reversible antagonist, AZD1283. The structure reveals a distinct straight conformation of helix V, which sets P2Y12R apart from all other known class A GPCR structures. With AZD1283 bound, the highly conserved disulphide bridge in GPCRs between helix III and extracellular loop 2 is not observed and appears to be dynamic. Along with the details of the AZD1283-binding site, analysis of the extracellular interface reveals an adjacent ligand-binding region and suggests that both pockets could be required for dinucleotide binding. The structure provides essential insights for the development of improved P2Y12R ligands and allosteric modulators as drug candidates.

PMID:
24670650
PMCID:
PMC4174307
DOI:
10.1038/nature13083
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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