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Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2014 Nov;239(11):1524-30. doi: 10.1177/1535370214523890. Epub 2014 Mar 25.

Vitamin D, immune regulation, the microbiota, and inflammatory bowel disease.

Author information

1
Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Science, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA Center for Molecular Immunology and Infectious Disease, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA mxc69@psu.edu.
2
Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Science, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA.

Abstract

The inflammatory bowel diseases are complex diseases caused by environmental, immunological, and genetic factors. Vitamin D status is low in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases, and experimental inflammatory bowel diseases are more severe in vitamin D-deficient or vitamin D receptor knockout animals. Vitamin D is beneficial in inflammatory bowel diseases because it regulates multiple checkpoints and processes essential for homeostasis in the gut. Vitamin D inhibits IFN-γ and IL-17 production while inducing regulatory T cells. In addition, vitamin D regulates epithelial cell integrity, innate immune responses, and the composition of the gut microbiota. Overall, vitamin D regulates multiple pathways that maintain gastrointestinal homeostasis. The data support improving vitamin D status in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases.

KEYWORDS:

Vitamin D; inflammatory bowel disease; microbiota

PMID:
24668555
PMCID:
PMC4176535
DOI:
10.1177/1535370214523890
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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