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PLoS One. 2014 Mar 25;9(3):e93081. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0093081. eCollection 2014.

Increased risk of benign prostate hyperplasia in sleep apnea patients: a nationwide population-based study.

Author information

1
Department of Neurology, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
2
Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan.
3
Department of Psychiatry, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
4
Department of Psychiatry, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
5
Department of Neurology, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Department of and Master's Program in Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
6
Nursing Department, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
7
Department of Psychiatry, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.
8
Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Department of Urology, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
9
Department of Healthcare Management, Yuanpei University, Hsinchu, Taiwan.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Sleep apnea (SA) is a common sleep disorder characterized by chronic intermittent hypoxia (IH). Chronic IH induces systemic inflammatory processes, which can cause tissue damage and contribute to prostatic enlargement. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and SA in a Taiwanese population.

METHODS:

The study population was identified from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) and contained 202 SA patients and 1010 control patients. The study cohort consisted of men aged ≥ 30 years who were newly diagnosed with SA between January 1997 and December 2005. Each patient was monitored for 5 years from the index date for the development of BPH. A Cox regression analysis was used to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs) for BPH in the SA and control patients.

RESULTS:

During the 5-year follow-up, 18 SA patients (8.9%) and 32 non-SA control patients (3.2%) developed BPH. The adjusted HR for BPH was 2.35-fold higher in the patients with SA than in the control patients (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.28-4.29, P<.01). We further divided the SA patients into 4 age groups. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, the highest adjusted HR for BPH in the SA patients compared with the control patients was 5.59 (95% CI = 2.19-14.31, P<.001) in the patients aged between 51 and 65 years.

CONCLUSION:

Our study results indicate that patients with SA are associated with increased longitudinal risk of BPH development, and that the effects of SA on BPH development are age-dependent.

PMID:
24667846
PMCID:
PMC3965509
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0093081
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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