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Nutrients. 2014 Mar 24;6(3):1293-317. doi: 10.3390/nu6031293.

Neuroprotective properties of the marine carotenoid astaxanthin and omega-3 fatty acids, and perspectives for the natural combination of both in krill oil.

Author information

1
Institute of Physical Activity and Sports Science (ICAFE), Cruzeiro do Sul University, 01506-000 São Paulo, Brazil. marcelo.barros@cruzeirodosul.edu.br.
2
Institute of Physical Activity and Sports Science (ICAFE), Cruzeiro do Sul University, 01506-000 São Paulo, Brazil. sandra.poppe@cruzeirodosul.edu.br.
3
Graduation Program in Health Sciences, Cruzeiro do Sul University, 01506-000 São Paulo, Brazil. eduardo.bondan@cruzeirodosul.edu.br.

Abstract

The consumption of marine fishes and general seafood has long been recommended by several medical authorities as a long-term nutritional intervention to preserve mental health, hinder neurodegenerative processes, and sustain cognitive capacities in humans. Most of the neurological benefits provided by frequent seafood consumption comes from adequate uptake of omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, n-3/n-6 PUFAs, and antioxidants. Optimal n-3/n-6 PUFAs ratios allow efficient inflammatory responses that prevent the initiation and progression of many neurological disorders. Moreover, interesting in vivo and clinical studies with the marine antioxidant carotenoid astaxanthin (present in salmon, shrimp, and lobster) have shown promising results against free radical-promoted neurodegenerative processes and cognition loss. This review presents the state-of-the-art applications of n-3/n-6 PUFAs and astaxanthin as nutraceuticals against neurodegenerative diseases associated with exacerbated oxidative stress in CNS. The fundamental "neurohormesis" principle is discussed throughout this paper. Finally, new perspectives for the application of a natural combination of the aforementioned anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agents (found in krill oil) are also presented herewith.

PMID:
24667135
PMCID:
PMC3967194
DOI:
10.3390/nu6031293
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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