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J Environ Biol. 2014 Mar;35(2):421-5.

Black fly (Simulium sp) composition, daytime biting activity and possible onchocerciasis infection in north-east, India.


Pupal stages of Simulium were collected and identified from various breeding habitats of twelve locations in northeastern India. Simulium flies, while attempting to land on human were collected between 07:00-17:00 hrs to understand the biting pattern. Seven species belonging to three sub-genera, Eusimulium (1), Gomphostilbia (1) and Simulium (5) belonging genus Simulium were encountered. Out of total seven species recorded, S. (E) aureohirtum, S. (G) tenuistylum and S. (S) rufibasis were predominant and shared 30.3%, 29.9% and 27.6% of total collection. Stream breeding habitat contributed 47.3% of total catch and was found to be preferred breeding habitat (p < 0.0001). S. (S) christophersi and S. (G) tenuistylum were recorded for the first time from the northeastern region of India. Simuliids biting rhythm showed bimodal pattern and were more active during sunny day (p < 0.0001). Microscopic dissection of simuliids (n = 266) did not incriminate simuliids as vector of onchocerciasis.

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