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PLoS One. 2014 Mar 24;9(3):e92522. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0092522. eCollection 2014.

Epidemiology of masked and white-coat hypertension: the family-based SKIPOGH study.

Author information

1
Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine (IUMSP), University Hospital of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.
2
Service of Nephrology, University Hospital of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.
3
Service of Nephrology, Department of Specialties, University Hospital of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.
4
Clinic for Nephrology, Hypertension and Clinical Pharmacology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital and University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
5
Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine (IUMSP), University Hospital of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland; Unit of Population Epidemiology, University Hospital of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.
6
Department of Cardiology, University Hospital of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.
7
Studies Coordinating Centre, Division of Hypertension and Cardiovascular Rehabilitation, Department of Cardiovascular Diseases, University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium; Department of Epidemiology, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
8
Studies Coordinating Centre, Division of Hypertension and Cardiovascular Rehabilitation, Department of Cardiovascular Diseases, University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium; Department of Planning for Drug Development and Clinical Evaluation, Tohoku University Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sendai, Japan.
9
Department of Community Medicine and Primary Care and Emergency Medicine, University Hospital of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

We investigated factors associated with masked and white-coat hypertension in a Swiss population-based sample.

METHODS:

The Swiss Kidney Project on Genes in Hypertension is a family-based cross-sectional study. Office and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure were measured using validated devices. Masked hypertension was defined as office blood pressure<140/90 mmHg and daytime ambulatory blood pressure≥135/85 mmHg. White-coat hypertension was defined as office blood pressure≥140/90 mmHg and daytime ambulatory blood pressure<135/85 mmHg. Mixed-effect logistic regression was used to examine the relationship of masked and white-coat hypertension with associated factors, while taking familial correlations into account. High-normal office blood pressure was defined as systolic/diastolic blood pressure within the 130-139/85-89 mmHg range.

RESULTS:

Among the 652 participants included in this analysis, 51% were female. Mean age (±SD) was 48 (±18) years. The proportion of participants with masked and white coat hypertension was respectively 15.8% and 2.6%. Masked hypertension was associated with age (odds ratio (OR) = 1.02, p = 0.012), high-normal office blood pressure (OR = 6.68, p<0.001), and obesity (OR = 3.63, p = 0.001). White-coat hypertension was significantly associated with age (OR = 1.07, p<0.001) but not with education, family history of hypertension, or physical activity.

CONCLUSIONS:

Our findings suggest that physicians should consider ambulatory blood pressure monitoring for older individuals with high-normal office blood pressure and/or who are obese.

PMID:
24663506
PMCID:
PMC3963885
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0092522
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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