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Transl Res. 2014 Aug;164(2):110-21. doi: 10.1016/j.trsl.2014.02.004. Epub 2014 Mar 4.

Established and emerging biomarkers for the prediction of type 1 diabetes: a systematic review.

Author information

1
Department of Pediatrics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Ind.
2
Department of Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Ind; Department of Cellular and Integrative Physiology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Ind; Department of Biochemistry, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Ind; Herman B Wells Center for Pediatric Research, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Ind.
3
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Ind.
4
Department of Pediatrics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Ind; Herman B Wells Center for Pediatric Research, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Ind. Electronic address: dimeglio@iu.edu.

Abstract

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease with a prolonged and variable latent period that culminates in the destruction of pancreatic β-cells and the development of hyperglycemia. There is a need for diagnostic biomarkers to detect more accurately individuals with prediabetes to expedite targeting for prevention and intervention strategies. To assess the current ability to predict the insidious development of T1D, we conducted a comprehensive systematic review for established and prospective predictive markers of T1D using the Medline, OVID, and EMBASE databases. Resulting citations were screened for relevance to subject. Our research generated five major categories of markers that are either currently used or forthcoming: genetic, autoantibody, risk score quantification, cellular immunity, and β-cell function. The current standard used to assess T1D onset or predisposition focuses on autoimmune pathology and disease-associated autoantibodies. Research studies in general go beyond autoantibody screening and assess genetic predisposition, and quantitate risk of developing disease based on additional factors. However, there are few currently used techniques that assess the root of T1D: β-cell destruction. Thus, novel techniques are discussed with the potential to gauge degrees of β-cell stress and failure via protein, RNA, and DNA analyses.

PMID:
24662515
PMCID:
PMC4452380
DOI:
10.1016/j.trsl.2014.02.004
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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