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J Vasc Surg. 2014 Aug;60(2):396-403. doi: 10.1016/j.jvs.2014.02.013. Epub 2014 Mar 22.

Peripheral arterial disease, gender, and depression in the Heart and Soul Study.

Author information

1
Department of Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, Calif; Department of Surgery, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, Calif. Electronic address: marlene.grenon@ucsfmedctr.org.
2
Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, Calif; Department of Medicine, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, Calif.
3
Center of Research on Psychology in Somatic Diseases, Tilburg University, Tilburg, The Netherlands; St. Luke's Mid America Heart Institute, Kansas City, Mo.
4
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, Calif.
5
Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, Calif; Department of Medicine, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, Calif; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, Calif.
6
Department of Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, Calif.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Despite the high prevalence of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in women, risk factors for PAD in women are not well understood.

METHODS:

Gender-specific risk factors for PAD were examined in a prospective cohort study of 1024 patients (184 women and 840 men) with stable coronary artery disease who were recruited between 2000 and 2002. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate associations between traditional and nontraditional risk factors and PAD in men and women.

RESULTS:

PAD was found in 11% of women and in 13% of men. Women with PAD had a similar prevalence of traditional risk factors (hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and smoking) compared with women without PAD and were significantly more likely to suffer from depression than women without PAD. Men with PAD were more likely to have hypertension, diabetes mellitus, a history of smoking, a worse lipid profile, and higher levels of inflammatory biomarkers than men without PAD. A multivariate model showed depression was the strongest independent factor associated with PAD in women, whereas smoking and elevated fibrinogen were independently associated with PAD in men.

CONCLUSIONS:

The current findings suggest there are gender differences in risk factors for the development of PAD. Further research is needed to understand the role of depression in PAD.

PMID:
24661811
PMCID:
PMC4199228
DOI:
10.1016/j.jvs.2014.02.013
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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