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Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res. 2014 Jun;14(3):335-44. doi: 10.1586/14737167.2014.901890. Epub 2014 Mar 24.

Stakeholder engagement in patient-centered outcomes research: high-touch or high-tech?

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University of Washington Department of Surgery, 1107 NE 45th St, Suite 502, Seattle, WA 98105, USA.


Patient and stakeholder engagement enhances the meaningfulness of patient-centered outcomes research. Continuous engagement of diverse patients helps to achieve representativeness and to avoid tokenism, but is perceived as challenging due to resource and time constraints. The widespread availability of the internet, mobile phones, and electronic devices makes 'high-tech' solutions appealing, but such approaches may trade-off larger sample sizes for shallower engagement and/or skewed perspectives if most participants reflect users of technology. More traditional 'high-touch' solutions such as in-person interviews, focus groups, and town hall meetings can provide qualitative and sociological context and potentially more in-depth insights from small numbers of patients, but such approaches are also prone to selection bias as well. We compare and contrast high-tech and high-touch approaches to engaging stakeholders and suggest hybrid processes.


eHealth; innovation; patient engagement; patient-centered outcomes research; stakeholders

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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