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J Exp Psychol Gen. 2014 Aug;143(4):1765-85. doi: 10.1037/a0036260. Epub 2014 Mar 24.

Reducing implicit racial preferences: I. A comparative investigation of 17 interventions.

Author information

1
Department of Psychology.
2
Department of Psychology, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia.
3
Department of Psychology, Harvard University.
4
Department of Psychology, Stony Brook University.
5
Department of Psychology, Virginia Commonwealth University.
6
Department of Psychology, Colgate University.
7
Department of Psychology, University of California.
8
Department of Psychology, University of Southern California.
9
Department of Psychology, Boston College.
10
Department of Psychology, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology.
11
Department of Psychology, Queen's University Belfast.
12
Stern School of Business, New York University.
13
London Business School.
14
University of Modena and Reggio Emilia.
15
Department of Psychology, University of Padua.

Abstract

Many methods for reducing implicit prejudice have been identified, but little is known about their relative effectiveness. We held a research contest to experimentally compare interventions for reducing the expression of implicit racial prejudice. Teams submitted 17 interventions that were tested an average of 3.70 times each in 4 studies (total N = 17,021), with rules for revising interventions between studies. Eight of 17 interventions were effective at reducing implicit preferences for Whites compared with Blacks, particularly ones that provided experience with counterstereotypical exemplars, used evaluative conditioning methods, and provided strategies to override biases. The other 9 interventions were ineffective, particularly ones that engaged participants with others' perspectives, asked participants to consider egalitarian values, or induced a positive emotion. The most potent interventions were ones that invoked high self-involvement or linked Black people with positivity and White people with negativity. No intervention consistently reduced explicit racial preferences. Furthermore, intervention effectiveness only weakly extended to implicit preferences for Asians and Hispanics.

PMID:
24661055
DOI:
10.1037/a0036260
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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