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Virus Res. 2014 Jun 24;185:32-40. doi: 10.1016/j.virusres.2014.03.013. Epub 2014 Mar 20.

Role of pattern recognition receptors in flavivirus infections.

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  • 1National Brain Research Centre, Manesar, Haryana 122051, India. Electronic address:
  • 2National Brain Research Centre, Manesar, Haryana 122051, India.
  • 3National Brain Research Centre, Manesar, Haryana 122051, India. Electronic address:


The flaviviral encephalitis has now become a major health concern in global scale. The efficient detection of viral infection and induction of the innate antiviral response by host's innate immune system are crucial to determine the outcome of infection. The intracellular pattern recognition receptors TLRs, RLRs, NLRs and CLRs play a central role in detection and initiation of robust antiviral response against flaviviral infection. Both cytoplasmic RLRs, RIG-I and MDA5 have been shown to be implicated in sensing flaviviral genomic RNA. Similarly among TLRs mainly TLR3 and TLR7 are known to respond in flaviviral infections as they are known to sense dsRNA and ssRNA moiety as their natural cognate ligand. Several studies have also shown the roles of NLRs and CLRs in mounting an innate antiviral response against flavivirus but, it is yet to be completely understood. Until now only few reports have implicated NLRs and CLRs in induction of antiviral and proinflammatory state following flaviviral infection. The current review therefore aims to comprehensively analyze past as well as current understanding on the role of PRRs in flaviviral infections.


Antivirals; Cytokine; Flavivirus; Innate immunity; PRRs

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