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Water Res. 2014 Jun 1;56:77-87. doi: 10.1016/j.watres.2014.02.045. Epub 2014 Mar 7.

Toxicity assessment and modelling of Moringa oleifera seeds in water purification by whole cell bioreporter.

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Kroto Research Institute, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7HQ, UK.
Yorkshire Water Education Centre, Esholt, Bradford BD10 0NY, UK.
Kroto Research Institute, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7HQ, UK; Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ, UK. Electronic address:


Moringa oleifera has been used as a coagulation reagent for drinking water purification, especially in developing countries such as Malawi. This research revealed the cytoxicity and genotoxicity of M. oleifera by Acinetobacter bioreporter. The results indicated that significant cytoxicity effects were observed when the powdered M. oleifera seeds concentration is from 1 to 50 mg/L. Through direct contact, ethanolic-water extraction and hexane extraction, the toxic effects of hydrophobic and hydrophilic components in M. oleifera seeds were distinguished. It suggested that the hydrophobic lipids contributed to the dominant cytoxicity, consequently resulting in the dominant genotoxicity in the water-soluble fraction due to limited dissolution when the M. oleifera seeds granule concentration was from 10 to 1000 mg/L. Based on cytoxicity and genotoxicity model, the LC50 and LC90 of M. oleifera seeds were 8.5 mg/L and 300 mg/L respectively and their genotoxicity was equivalent to 8.3 mg mitomycin C per 1.0 g dry M. oleifera seed. The toxicity of M. oleifera has also remarkable synergistic effects, suggesting whole cell bioreporter as an appropriate and complementary tool to chemical analysis for environmental toxicity assessment.


Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1; Cytoxicity; Genotoxicity; Moringa oleifera; Whole cell bioreporter

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