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Nutr Res. 2014 Mar;34(3):199-209. doi: 10.1016/j.nutres.2014.01.006. Epub 2014 Jan 28.

Socioeconomic factors are associated with folate and vitamin B12 intakes and related biomarkers concentrations in European adolescents: the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study.

Author information

1
GENUD: "Growth, Exercise, Nutrition and Development" Research Group, University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain; Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain.
2
ImFINE Research Group, Department of Health and Human Performance, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
3
Institute for Medical Research, Centre of Research Excellence in Nutrition and Metabolism, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia.
4
ImFINE Research Group, Department of Health and Human Performance, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid, Spain; Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Bonn, D-53115 Bonn, Germany.
5
Department of Public Health, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium; International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 150 Cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08, France.
6
Department of Public Health, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
7
Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
8
Inserm U995, Faculté de Médecine, Université Lille 2, Lille, France.
9
University of Crete School of Medicine, GR-71033 Crete, Greece.
10
Human Nutrition Unit, INRAN, Rome 00100, Italy.
11
Immunonutrition Research Group, Department of Metabolism and Nutrition, Institute of Food Science, Technology and Nutrition (ICTAN), Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), Madrid, Spain.
12
Division of Clinical Nutrition and Prevention, Department of Pediatrics, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
13
Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Harokopio University, Athens, Greece.
14
Department of Paediatrics, University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary.
15
Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Bonn, D-53115 Bonn, Germany.
16
GENUD: "Growth, Exercise, Nutrition and Development" Research Group, University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain; Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain. Electronic address: lmoreno@unizar.es.

Abstract

Because socioeconomic factors (SEFs) may influence dietary quality and vitamin intakes, this study aimed to examine associations between socioeconomic factors and folate and vitamin B12 intakes as well as their related biomarkers in the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study. Vitamin intakes were obtained from two 24-hour recalls in 2253 participants (47% males). Vitamin B biomarkers were assessed in a subsample of 977 participants (46% males). Socioeconomic factors were assessed by questionnaire, and 1-way analysis of covariance and linear regression analysis were applied. For males and females, mean intakes of folate were 211.19 and 177.18 μg/d, and for vitamin B12, 5.98 and 4.54 μg/d, respectively. Levels of plasma folate, red blood cell folate, serum B12, and holotranscobalamin were 18.74, 807.19, 330.64, and 63.04 nmol/L in males, respectively, and 19.13, 770.16, 377.9, and 65.63 nmol/L in females, respectively. Lower folate intakes were associated with several SEFs, including maternal and paternal education in both sexes. Regarding folate biomarkers, lower plasma folate intakes were associated with single/shared care in males and with lower paternal occupation in females. Lower vitamin B12 intakes were associated with almost all the studied SEFs, except paternal occupation in both sexes. In females, when considering vitamin B12 biomarkers, lower plasma vitamin B12 was associated with lower maternal education and occupation, and lower holotranscobalamin was associated with lower maternal education and lower paternal occupation. In conclusion, from the set of socioeconomic determinants studied in a sample of European adolescents, maternal education and paternal occupation were more consistently associated with folate and vitamin B12 intakes and biomarkers concentrations.

KEYWORDS:

Europe; Socioeconomic factors; adolescent; cross-sectional; folic acid; vitamin B(12)

PMID:
24655486
DOI:
10.1016/j.nutres.2014.01.006
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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