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Annu Rev Immunol. 2014;32:659-702. doi: 10.1146/annurev-immunol-032713-120145.

Chemokines and chemokine receptors: positioning cells for host defense and immunity.

Author information

1
Center for Immunology & Inflammatory Diseases, Division of Rheumatology, Allergy & Immunology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114; email: jwgriffith@mgh.harvard.edu , clsokol@mgh.harvard.edu , aluster@mgh.harvard.edu.

Abstract

Chemokines are chemotactic cytokines that control the migratory patterns and positioning of all immune cells. Although chemokines were initially appreciated as important mediators of acute inflammation, we now know that this complex system of approximately 50 endogenous chemokine ligands and 20 G protein-coupled seven-transmembrane signaling receptors is also critical for the generation of primary and secondary adaptive cellular and humoral immune responses. Recent studies demonstrate important roles for the chemokine system in the priming of naive T cells, in cell fate decisions such as effector and memory cell differentiation, and in regulatory T cell function. In this review, we focus on recent advances in understanding how the chemokine system orchestrates immune cell migration and positioning at the organismic level in homeostasis, in acute inflammation, and during the generation and regulation of adoptive primary and secondary immune responses in the lymphoid system and peripheral nonlymphoid tissue.

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