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J Agric Food Chem. 2014 May 7;62(18):4054-62. doi: 10.1021/jf4054066. Epub 2014 Apr 23.

Interaction of moderate UV-B exposure and temperature on the formation of structurally different flavonol glycosides and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives in kale (Brassica oleracea var. sabellica).

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Leibniz-Institute of Vegetable and Ornamental Crops Grossbeeren/Erfurt e.V. , Theodor-Echtermeyer-Weg 1, 14979 Grossbeeren, Germany.


Kale has a high number of structurally different flavonol glycosides and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives. In this study we investigated the interaction of moderate UV-B radiation and temperature on these compounds. Kale plants were grown at daily mean temperatures of 5 or 15 °C and were exposed to five subsequent daily doses (each 0.25 kJ m(-2) d(-1)) of moderate UV-B radiation at 1 d intervals. Of 20 phenolic compounds, 11 were influenced by an interaction of UV-B radiation and temperature, e.g., monoacylated quercetin glycosides. Concomitantly, enhanced mRNA expression of flavonol 3'- hydroxylase showed an interaction of UV-B and temperature, highest at 0.75 kJ m(-2) and 15 °C. Kaempferol glycosides responded diversely and dependent on, e.g., the hydroxycinnamic acid residue. Compounds containing a catechol structure seem to be favored in the response to UV-B. Taken together, subsequent exposure to moderate UV-B radiation is a successful tool for enhancing the flavonoid profile of plants, and temperature should be considered.


Brassica oleracea; UV-B; flavonoids; flavonol 3′-hydroxylase; flavonol glycosides; hydroxycinnamic acids

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