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PLoS One. 2014 Mar 20;9(3):e90714. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0090714. eCollection 2014.

High genetic diversity and adaptive potential of two simian hemorrhagic fever viruses in a wild primate population.

Author information

1
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America; Wisconsin National Primate Research Center, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America.
2
Wisconsin National Primate Research Center, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America; Department of Pathobiological Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America.
3
Department of Pathobiological Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America.
4
Department of Biological Sciences, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina, United States of America.
5
Department of Computer Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America.
6
Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda.
7
Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda; Department of Anthropology and School of Environment, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
8
Integrated Research Facility at Fort Detrick, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Fort Detrick, Frederick, Maryland, United States of America.

Erratum in

  • PLoS One. 2014;9(7):e102939.

Abstract

Key biological properties such as high genetic diversity and high evolutionary rate enhance the potential of certain RNA viruses to adapt and emerge. Identifying viruses with these properties in their natural hosts could dramatically improve disease forecasting and surveillance. Recently, we discovered two novel members of the viral family Arteriviridae: simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV)-krc1 and SHFV-krc2, infecting a single wild red colobus (Procolobus rufomitratus tephrosceles) in Kibale National Park, Uganda. Nearly nothing is known about the biological properties of SHFVs in nature, although the SHFV type strain, SHFV-LVR, has caused devastating outbreaks of viral hemorrhagic fever in captive macaques. Here we detected SHFV-krc1 and SHFV-krc2 in 40% and 47% of 60 wild red colobus tested, respectively. We found viral loads in excess of 10(6)-10(7) RNA copies per milliliter of blood plasma for each of these viruses. SHFV-krc1 and SHFV-krc2 also showed high genetic diversity at both the inter- and intra-host levels. Analyses of synonymous and non-synonymous nucleotide diversity across viral genomes revealed patterns suggestive of positive selection in SHFV open reading frames (ORF) 5 (SHFV-krc2 only) and 7 (SHFV-krc1 and SHFV-krc2). Thus, these viruses share several important properties with some of the most rapidly evolving, emergent RNA viruses.

PMID:
24651479
PMCID:
PMC3961216
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0090714
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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