Send to

Choose Destination
Nat Rev Neurosci. 2014 Apr;15(4):217-32. doi: 10.1038/nrn3707.

Growth and folding of the mammalian cerebral cortex: from molecules to malformations.

Author information

Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, 1300 York Avenue, BOX 60, New York, New York 10065, USA.
Department of Neurological Surgery and Center for Integrative Brain Research, Seattle Children's Research Institute, Seattle, Washington 98101, USA.


The size and extent of folding of the mammalian cerebral cortex are important factors that influence a species' cognitive abilities and sensorimotor skills. Studies in various animal models and in humans have provided insight into the mechanisms that regulate cortical growth and folding. Both protein-coding genes and microRNAs control cortical size, and recent progress in characterizing basal progenitor cells and the genes that regulate their proliferation has contributed to our understanding of cortical folding. Neurological disorders linked to disruptions in cortical growth and folding have been associated with novel neurogenetic mechanisms and aberrant signalling pathways, and these findings have changed concepts of brain evolution and may lead to new medical treatments for certain disorders.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Nature Publishing Group Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center