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Hypertens Res. 2014 Sep;37(9):863-9. doi: 10.1038/hr.2014.60. Epub 2014 Mar 20.

Interrelationship between brachial artery function and renal small artery sclerosis in chronic kidney disease.

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Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology and Neurology, University of the Ryukyus School of Medicine, Nishihara-cho, Japan.
Dialysis Unit, University Hospital of the Ryukyus, Nishihara-cho, Japan.


Chronic kidney disease (CKD), characterized by senile inflammation, is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Conduit artery function and small artery structure relate to cardiovascular disease. We examined the correlations, determinants and interrelationships of arterial indices in association with CKD in a cross-sectional study of 139 patients (60% male; mean age 44 years) with CKD (stages 3-5, 39%) who underwent a renal biopsy. Conduit artery function and small artery sclerosis were assessed by brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) and semiquantitative evaluation of small artery intimal thickening (SA-IT), respectively. The estimated glomerular filtration rate correlated with FMD (r=0.31, P=0.0002) and inversely correlated with SA-IT (r=-0.54, P<0.0001). Multiple regression analysis showed that FMD was inversely correlated with SA-IT and vice versa. In addition, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) was significantly correlated with SA-IT, but not FMD. Multiple logistic analysis revealed that higher hs-CRP concomitant with decreased FMD was further associated with the risk of severe SA-IT compared with their individual effects. These findings suggest that both conduit artery and small artery disease develop with mutual interaction in parallel with decreased kidney function. Coexistence of inflammation and conduit artery dysfunction may be closely related to renal small artery sclerosis in patients with CKD.

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