Format

Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Cereb Cortex. 2015 Sep;25(9):2383-94. doi: 10.1093/cercor/bhu036. Epub 2014 Mar 18.

Linked Sex Differences in Cognition and Functional Connectivity in Youth.

Author information

1
Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.
2
Department of Radiology, Perelman Scholl of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.
3
Center for Applied Genomics, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.
4
Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA Department of Radiology, Perelman Scholl of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.
5
Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA Department of Radiology, Perelman Scholl of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA Philadelphia Veterans Administration Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.

Abstract

Sex differences in human cognition are marked, but little is known regarding their neural origins. Here, in a sample of 674 human participants ages 9-22, we demonstrate that sex differences in cognitive profiles are related to multivariate patterns of resting-state functional connectivity MRI (rsfc-MRI). Males outperformed females on motor and spatial cognitive tasks; females were faster in tasks of emotion identification and nonverbal reasoning. Sex differences were also prominent in the rsfc-MRI data at multiple scales of analysis, with males displaying more between-module connectivity, while females demonstrated more within-module connectivity. Multivariate pattern analysis using support vector machines classified subject sex on the basis of their cognitive profile with 63% accuracy (P < 0.001), but was more accurate using functional connectivity data (71% accuracy; P < 0.001). Moreover, the degree to which a given participant's cognitive profile was "male" or "female" was significantly related to the masculinity or femininity of their pattern of brain connectivity (P = 2.3 × 10(-7)). This relationship was present even when considering males and female separately. Taken together, these results demonstrate for the first time that sex differences in patterns of cognition are in part represented on a neural level through divergent patterns of brain connectivity.

KEYWORDS:

adolescence; cognition; connectivity; connectome; development; fMRI; network; resting-state; sex differences

PMID:
24646613
PMCID:
PMC4537416
DOI:
10.1093/cercor/bhu036
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

0 comments
How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Silverchair Information Systems Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Support Center