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Pathobiology. 2014;81(3):123-32. doi: 10.1159/000357622. Epub 2014 Mar 8.

Terrestrosin D, a steroidal saponin from Tribulus terrestris L., inhibits growth and angiogenesis of human prostate cancer in vitro and in vivo.

Author information

1
Department of Urology, Kochi Medical School, Nankoku, Japan.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

The aim of this study was to investigate whether terrestrosin D (TED) inhibits the progression of castration-resistant prostate cancer and consider its mechanism.

METHODS:

Cell cycle, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and apoptosis were determined by flow cytometry. Caspase-3 activity and vascular endothelial growth factor secretion were detected by a caspase-3 assay and human vascular endothelial growth factor kit, respectively. A PC-3 xenograft mouse model was used to evaluate the anticancer effect of TED in vivo.

RESULTS:

In vitro, TED strongly suppressed the growth of prostate cancer cells and endothelial cells in a dose-dependent manner. TED induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in PC-3 cells and human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs). TED-induced apoptosis did not involve the caspase pathway. TED also decreased ΔΨm in PC-3 cells and HUVECs. In vivo, TED significantly suppressed tumor growth in nude mice bearing PC-3 cells, without any overt toxicity. Immunohistochemical analysis showed TED induced apoptotic cell death and inhibited angiogenesis in xenograft tumor cells.

CONCLUSION:

Cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis in cancer cells and endothelial cells might be plausible mechanisms of actions for the observed antitumor and antiangiogenic activities of TED.

PMID:
24642631
DOI:
10.1159/000357622
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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